Chemguide: Support for CIE A level Chemistry

Learning outcome 15.4(b)

This statement is about the mechanism for the electrophilic substitution reaction involved in the nitration and bromination of arenes, and the effect of the delocalised electrons in the ring.

Before you go on, you should find and read the statement in your copy of the syllabus.

Important background

Before you look in detail at these reactions, you should first read the introductory page on electrophilic substitution.

Statement 15.4(b)(i)


You will find this described on the page about the nitration of benzene.

Don't forget to learn the equation for the formation of the electrophile. That is an essential part of the mechanism.

It is essential that you follow the "Help!" link at the bottom of the page where you will find the mechanism explained in detail.

On this second page, you will find the two alternative ways of writing the final stage of the mechanism. CIE mark schemes show that they are expecting what I have described as "a sloppy way" of writing the final step, but obviously they will also accept the proper way of writing it. The choice is yours. If you want an easy life, choose the sloppy way; if you like things to be right, learn what really happens.


The mechanisms for chlorination and bromination are explained on the page about the halogenation of benzene. Don't forget to read the "Help" page as well.

These pages actually show the mechanism equations for chlorination, but all you need to do for bromination is literally just replace every Cl by Br. But don't try to do that mentally at the first read-through. Just make sure that you understand it in the chlorine case.

Once you are happy, rewrite the mechanism replacing every Cl by Br.

Statement 15.4(b)(ii)

This statement is asking you to be able to work out a mechanism in similar cases where you are given enough information to get you started.

An obvious example would be to ask you for the chlorination mechanism, which isn't specifically on the syllabus, but which you have just been reading about.

It might pay you to have a quick look at the other electrophilic substitution reactions which are commonly asked at this level - but don't try to do this unless you are confident about what the syllabus says you must know.

You will find some other examples on the electrophilic substitution menu.

Remember that you don't need to learn any of these other ones. Just read them through so that you can see the logic of what is happening in each case. In fact, it would probably be best to leave this until your final revision.

Statement 15.4(b)(iii)

As far as I can see, up to June 2017 CIE hasn't asked anything explicitly about this section. But the ideas in it underpin all of the chemistry of benzene and its compounds.

Important ideas include:

  • It costs about 150 kJ mol-1 to break the delocalisation of the electrons. If benzene (or any other arene) undergoes addition reactions, that would permanently break the delocalisation, and the energetics would be against this happening. Arenes tend to undergo substitution rather than addition to the ring.

  • The delocalised electrons lying above and below the plane of the molecule are very attractive for electrophiles to attack. Therefore, arenes undergo electrophilic substitution.

  • The substitution mechanisms all involve a temporary breaking of the delocalisation. That costs energy, even if it is given out again when the delocalisation reforms. Therefore, activation energies are high, and substitution reactions of arenes tend to be relatively slow.

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© Jim Clark 2010 (last modified August 2017)